Reducing deep acne scars resulting from severe bouts of cystic or nodular lesions requires a well thought out cosmetic corrective plan. And according to reports in Dermatologic Surgery, popularized scar removal options like laser resurfacing may not satisfactorily smooth away deep acne scars. Yet, patients can readily witness scar depth reductions in indented acne scaring using aesthetic therapies such as dermal fillers.

Silicon based dermal fillers

In a 30-year perspective study of using dermal fillers to correct acne scars, doctors Jay Barnett and Channing Barnett deemed medical-grade liquid silicone the only filler substance that permanently and precisely corrects acne scars. During their investigation, the researchers reviewed the lives of five patients with a history of acne scarring. Each patient showed improvements from injections of liquid silicone at the initial treatment session and at 10-, 15-, and 30-year follow-up sessions.

Hyaluronic acid dermal fillers

Even though silicon based dermal fillers work, heavily marketed fillers made of hyaluronic acid also present a potential deep acne scarring corrective. While the results from dermal fillers can prove pleasantly dramatic, in the case of hyaluronic acid, the enhancements may only last six months. Moreover, most Food and Drug Administration approved dermal fillers like Perlane have only been tested on and prescribed for correction of nasal labial folds, not acne scars that can arise on multiple areas of the face.

Calcium-based dermal fillers

In a study published in the Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy, investigators tested a dermal filler composed of calcium hydroxylapatite to treat acne scars. Researchers used the filler to correct both round or saucerized acne scars, and deep acne scars with a sharp triangular shaped called "ice-pick" scars. After administering the dermal filler to ten patients with various types of acne scarring, the investigators found that only saucerized acne scars responded well to the treatment. Scar improvements lasted up to twelve months in some volunteers.

How to select a dermal filler

While dermal fillers offer dazzling results, they aren't cheap. And typically, the longer the filler lasts, the more expensive the treatment. Dermal injections can run from $300 to $2000 for treated area so plan to spend smartly. Moreover, a dermal injection is only as aesthetically beautiful as the professional delivering the shot.

When seeking a dermal injection, seek a professional possessing experience with correcting deep acne scars with dermal fillers. Lastly, when using a dermal injection, make certain that you have your acne outbreaks under control because dermal injections are contraindicated for facial areas experiencing pain or inflammation, including pimples.

Sources:

Barnett, Jay & Channing Barnett. treatment of acne Scars with Liquid Silicone Injections: 30-Year Perspective. Dermatologic Surgery, November 2005; vol 31, no 4, pp 1542-1549.

Food and Drug Administration. Perlane Injectable GelĀ  P040024s006 Labeling. May 2, 2007. http://www.fda.gov/cdrh/pdf4/p040024s006c.pdf

Goldberg, David; Snehal Amin & Mussarrat Hussein. Acne scar correction using calcium hydroxylapatite in a carrier-based gel. Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy, September 2006; vol 8, no 3, pp. 134-136.

Woo, S; J Park & & Y Kye. Resurfacing of Different Types of Facial Acne Scar With Short-Pulsed, Variable-Pulsed, and Dual-Mode Er:YAG Laser. Dermatologic Surgery, April 2004; vol 30, no 4, pp 488-493.

If you need Fürdőszoba csempe , then the team of professionals from transvidiacsempebolt is here to help you.

This article is written to assist you in selecting the water heater that will best suit your particular residential water heating needs. We will discuss various types of hot water systems and provide useful hints for selecting the right model.

Did you know that heating water is the second-biggest source of energy consumption in your home?

This is the main reason to be very careful when deciding on the best water heating solution for you. When purchasing a new water heater, or changing from one heater to another, you should consider several factors:

- Source of fuel (solar, gas, electrical, oil) - Initial price and long-term operating costs - Size (tankless, point of use, storage tank) - Quality - Brand favorites (i.e.; Noritz, Rheem, AO Smith, Rinnai...) - Repair costs and spare part availability - Optional feature availability

Gas-fueled appliances may use either natural, propane, or LP gas. Seek models with a high energy factor; the higher this value is, the better. Their primary benefit is rapid water heating with a cheaper fuel.

Electric water heaters are good picks in cases where gas is not a realistic alternative. Lower initial cost, safety, flexibility, and easier installation and troubleshooting are the main benefits.

Solar-powered American water heaters are very basic and use cost-free, renewable solar energy to produce hot water. These models represent lifelong investments that pay rich dividends in the long term.

Oil-fired heating systems with high combustion temperatures are rapid recovery units that are higher than both electric and gas systems.

Technology and Size Considerations

Tankless water heaters are often called "instantaneous" or "on-demand" systems, as they produce hot water only upon demand. The main benefits are the absence of a cumbersome, space-consuming tank, infinite hot water supply, excellent efficiency, longevity, flexibility, compact size, and high proportion of replaceable elements. Popular manufacturers are Rheem, Noritz, Bosch, Rinnai, Paloma.

Tank-style heating units are the most common type of American water heater. A 50-gallon tank is the most popular size, and may be either gas or electric. Reputable North American manufacturers include AO Smith, Rheem, State, American, Bradford White.

Water Heater Reviews Based on Venting

Direct-vent water heating units have built-in venting systems that draw air into the unit while forcing fumes out without using the electrical blower.

Power vent water heating appliances are similar to direct-vent models, but they use electrically-powered blowers for assistance with mechanically exhausting the combustion gases to the exterior of the device.

Atmospheric heaters use either a vertical or Type B vent, or a brick or double-wall metal chimney. A sufficient supply of air is needed for proper gas combustion. In most cases, this air supply originates from within the house.

Through-the-wall ("TTW") hot water units use either a blower or a direct-vent system.

Other Water Heater Types

Water heaters of higher efficiency are acknowledged as being EnergyStar appliances, as they offer superior performance, reduced operating costs and environmental pollution, and allow their owners to receive governmental grants. Look for an EF rating equal to or greater than .82.

Abstract This is a review paper that identified factors causing students' poor performance in science as teachers' method of teaching, students' interest, class size, poor laboratory facilities among other factors. Recommendations were made at the end of the paper; one of such recommendations was that teachers should be more dedicated to their duties

Introduction Science is different from other disciplines by its processes which are; observation, classification, measurement, prediction, problem identification, collection, analysis and interpretation of data, drawing conclusion, experimentation etc. In Nigeria research has shown that students' performance in science has not been encouraging due to some factors. The table below shows percentage of students' performance in May/ June Examination from 2006 to 2011 in Nigeria. YearPercentage of pass 200622 200720 200826 200926 201023 201130 Source: The sun news 2011

Factor influencing students' performance Adegboye (2003) believed the main factor that is responsible for poor performance in mathematics is the fear of mathematics. Okooboh, Afolabi and Asilika (2004) stressed that the unimpressive response to science and technical education is particularly evident in students' poor performance in science subjects at secondary school level. In the words of Ajileye (2006) insufficient resources for the teaching and learning of science constitute a major cause of student underachievement. The insufficient resources include laboratories, science equipment, and specimens to be used as teaching aids. Onuoha (1997) identified shortage of qualified and dedicated teachers as the factor affecting student performance in science and that poor practical orientation will lead to poor understanding of the theory. In his opinion teachers are no more dedicated to their assignments. They give more time to trading, petty contracts, farming etc. They sneak in and out of the classrooms and laboratories at will. Ukwuma (1990) in his investigation of factor impair science education confirmed that over 80% of failure in science and technology are due to the inability of students to perform well in practical. Akinola (2006) believed that causes of mass failure of students in senior secondary Chemistry Examination include teacher's methodology, structuring of the curriculum, the concentration of examination questions on few topics and the inability of students to perform enough practical before their examination. Ladanu (1991) observed that most of the textbooks used in secondary schools are written by foreign authors. Languages used in some of the texts are complex and ambiguous. Hence, it becomes difficult for students to comprehend. In the opinion of Akanbi (2003) poor performance in Physics may be due to a number of fundamental reasons, which could be due to shortage of science teachers in quality and quantity, inadequate laboratory equipment and facilities, poor motivated teaching strategies, shortage of suitable Physics textbooks and other factors. Bamidele (2004) observed lack of interest in physics by students due to preconceived idea that physics is a difficult subject has affected the enrolment and performance of students in physics. Ogunbiyi (1986) investigated that many secondary school students are unfamiliar with more than half of laboratory apparatus and are unable to know in what experiment they are used. Garba (2004) conducted a research on the relationship between classroom control and students' performance; his findings revealed that teachers who are sufficiently equipped with strategies that assist in classroom control adequately will automatically enable the students have full concentration and lead to positive academic performance of the students. In the opinion of Ojo (2001) lack of qualified teachers, lack of facilities and poor teaching method are factors to be considered when it comes to student performance in science. He said the success of any science education programme depends to a large extent on the teacher. Olonade (2000) and Fatola (2005) in their different studies both agreed that school location and school size influences students' performance in sciences. In a study carried out by Owolabi (2004) on a diagnosis of students' difficulties in Physics, he revealed that poor performance of students in Physics could have emanated from student's lack of full understanding of Physics concepts Aiyelabegan (2003) identified attitude, approach of students and teacher to Physics, inadequacy of practical equipment, unconducive environment and lack of qualified hands to handle practical works as factors affecting student performance in Physics. Apata (2007) confirmed that students taught by qualified and experienced teachers performed better than students taught by unqualified and inexperienced teachers. Conclusion and recommendations Poor students' performance in science is due to poor teaching method, poor textbooks, students' interest, class size, poor laboratory facilities, teacher attitude to work and poor condition of service. In view of the above conclusion it is suggested that teachers should be more dedicated to their duties, provision of laboratory equipment and reduction of students' number per class.

REFRENCES

Adegboye, A.O &Adegboye,O.A(2003).An investigation into Secondary School students' performance in SSCE Mathematics. Lafiagi Journal of science Education 5 (1& 2), 25-31.

Aiyelabegan,A.T (2003). Effect of physics practical on Students' Academic performance in Senior School Certificate Physics Examination in kwara state. Lafiagi Journal of Science Education 5 (1& 2), 84-89.

Akinola, B.M.A (2006). Causes of Mass Failure in senior secondary school Chemistry in Ijebu East Local Government Area of Ogun State. Oro Science Educational journal. 4(5&6),19.

Ajileye , O.O (2006).Towards Effective Science Education: Issues in Universal Basic Education Programme. Journal of Sports Management and Educational Research. 1 (2), 337.

Akanbi A.O (2003). Trend in Physics Education in Secondary School in Kwara State. Lafiagi Journal of science education. 5(1& 2), 69- 75.

Apata, S.F (2007). Influence of Teachers -Academic Qualification and Experience on Students' Performance in Senior Secondary School Physics In Kwara State. (Unpublished master thesis). University of Ilorin,Ilorin

Bamidele, L (2004). Students' Poor Performance in Physics. A Bane to our Nation's Technological Development. Nigerian Journal of Science Education and Practice. 2(1), 174

Garba,R.B(2004). Teachers'Classroom Control and Students' Academic Achievement (Unpublished master's thesis). University of Ilorin,Ilorin. Ladanu, G.A (1991). Students' Performance in Biology- Factors and remedies. Journal of Education Students' Association, University of Ilorin. 7, 8.

Ogunniyi, M.B (1986). Teaching science in Africa. Ibadan: University press.

Ojo M. O (2001). Problems of teaching Science and Mathematics in Nigeria.A paper presented at the Train- the Trainers workshop for Science and Mathematics teachers in Colleges of Education in Six Geo - political zone of Nigeria.

Okooboh, M.A, Afolabi, M.A, & Asilika, D.A (2004). Science and technical Education in a Democratic Government for Sustainable National Development The Conference: Journal of Contemporary Educational Thoughts. 1 (1), 44, 45.

Olonade, G.B(2000). Influence of School Location, School Size, Sex DifferenceAnd Teachers Variables on Mathematics Achievement of Secondary Student In Kwara State. (Unpublished master's thesis). University of Ilorin, Ilorin.

If you are looking to add great value to your home then considering travertine tiles to add that spice of elegance and beauty. Travertine floors are made from the majestic natural stone and offer incredible depth and colour, adding a great aesthetic appearl to your home. Travertine flooring has its advantages and limitations. Understanding your lifestyle, needs and preferences is key to ensuring that the function of this flooring option is fully maximized for your home.

So what exactly is travertine?

Travertine flooring is made from travertine, a type of limestone that forms through mineral deposits, particularly in and around hot springs. Travertine limestone is composed of calcium carbonate, the same material that makes stalactites and stalagmites.

Travertine tiles have been used for many years not just for its durability but also for its looks and texture. The Romans, for example, built many of their famous buildings using travertine. A notable example is the Colosseum, a building made mostly from the material and has remained as one of the most enduring landmarks in Italy. It is also commonly found in some of the world's oldest buildings.

So what are the advantages of travertine flooring?

Travertine flooring is quite durable and with sufficient care, it can last for many years and maintain its beauty. When sold, the material is usually displayed with a mark indicating its hardness on the MOH scale. In general, travertine registers at the MOH scale with a 3-4 rating, which is near or equivalent to that of marble. As long as it is sealed, treated and cared for, it can withstand regular foot traffic plus lots more.

If your flooring is not sealed and installed in its rough form, it offers excellent traction. This is why a travertine paver is safer to use than ceramic tiles outdoors in the garden or patio. Travertine also comes in several colours such as beige, white or ivory, brown, red and gold so tiles can be matched to a preferred colour scheme. It is also processed and sold in different finishes such as chiselled, brushed, tumbled and honed.

What are the disadvantages of travertine flooring?

Travertine flooring is made out of natural limestone. If it is unsealed, it can be damaged or stained by high-acid products because it is by nature porous. Travertine is alkaline and will react when it comes in contact with acids from liquids and foods. It can also be damaged over time due to corrosion if cleaned using acid-based products. It also tends to be rather slippery when wet, especially if it is polished.

This type of flooring is also a high-end construction material and as such, tends to be priced at a premium. It is possible it can be as expensive as granite tiles or even more. Travertine flooring also behaves similarly to other natural stone materials in that it can chip or break and is vulnerable to scratching. It also tends to be quite heavy, particularly the larger 12"x12" tile units, which can weight as much as 2.5kgs.

Travertine flooring also requires regular care and maintenance and may not be the best option in homes where there are kids and/or pets if it is unsealed. Very often you'll find that it is used more often in the patio and living room areas and occassionally in the kitchen or bathroom.